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英海听涛

启用你的听觉,更自然地感受更辽阔的世界。——用进废退!

 
 
 

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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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聆听天籁(下)  

2016-01-14 10:55:16|  分类: 科学与技术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(1)

本周我们要越出太阳系的边界,离开我们所在的宇宙一隅,进入浩瀚的星际空间。

——这是旅行者一号最近探测到的声音。

伦敦大学学院的宇宙学家安德鲁-彭岑。

——旅行者一号是距离我们最远的人造物,大约比我们的太阳远130倍,这意味着它实质上离开了太阳系,也就是我们认为的真正由太阳控制的区域。它已经离开了这部分空间径直进入我们称为的星际风——由与太阳无关的一些气体和物质组成。

我们现在听到的这些独特的声音是由来自太阳的物质波浪也就是太阳风所激发的,它们猛然闯入星际气体中,从而激发出我们听到的这种声波。这一录音的一个不同寻常之处是揭示了在太阳的势力范围之外,我们突然发现那里其实有更多的物质。

(02m00s)

This week we are leaving our corner of the cosmos behind as we cross over the boundary from the Solar System into interstellar space.

-- This is the sound that Voyager One has picked up very recently.

Cosmologist Andrew Pontzen from University College London.

-- Voyager One is the furthest man-made-object from us, it’s about a hundred and thirty times further away than our Sun, and that means it’s essentially left the Solar System, where you think of the Solar System is being the region which the Sun is really in command of. It’s left that part of space heading straight into what we call the interstellar winds, which is made up of bits of gas and stuff that aren’t associated with the Sun.

The particular sounds that we are hearing are being triggered as waves of material come from the Sun itself, this is the solar wind, and they slam into the interstellar gas, and that triggers off waves that we then hearing in this sound. One of the weird things of this recording reveals that actually beyond the influence of the Sun, suddenly we find it’s actually much more material there.

(2)

现在继续向外航行进入银河系,我们从外星行星再来到与我们自己的太阳大不相同的恒星:扩张的恒星,爆炸的恒星,以及当我们越来越远地进入外太空时将要听到的向外发射怪异信号的恒星。

——这是个红巨星,一种通常比太阳大的恒星,一般为太阳的十余倍。

这是英国卓瑞尔班克天文台的射电天文学家蒂姆-布莱恩。

——它名叫XX,位于长蛇(星)座,大约130光年远。

红巨星是膨胀了的恒星,它们能膨胀到我们太阳的几百倍。它们膨胀是因为它们内核深处核反应的改变点燃了新的燃料供应使得它们的燃烧更加明亮。

——你现在听到的是来自一台射电望远镜的主要用于测量恒星亮度和观察亮度变化的信息,这些变化是由于恒星自身引起的脉动和振动。

(10m15s)

Cruising further out into the Milky Way now, we travel from strange alien planets to spectacular stars that are wildly different from our own familiar Sun: stars that are expanding, stars that are exploding, and stars that send out strange alien signals which we about to hear as we go further and further out into space.

-- This is a red giant star, a star mostly larger than the Sun; it is ten times the size of the Sun.

Radio astronomer Tim O’Brien from Jodrell Bank Telescope in the UK.

-- It’s called XX Hydrae. It’s in the constellation of Hydra, about a hundred and thirty light years away.

Red giants are stars that have inflated until they are hundreds of times bigger than our Sun. they swell up because of changing nuclear reactions deep in their core that ignite new fuel supplies making them burn even brighter.

-- What you are hearing there is information from a telescope basically measure the brightness of the star and look at the brightness variations that are caused by the star itself, pulsated and vibrated.

(3)

这是另一颗星,不过这次是一颗白矮星。声音也大不相同,其原因是它的结构完全不同。它其实不是我们通常理解的恒星,而是在经历了它的主要生命过程之后塌陷的星。

白矮星本质上是一颗死亡的星。它的体积与地球相当。当一颗与太阳类似的恒星到达了它生命的终点,燃尽了它内核中的核燃料,它的外层会扩张,这时我们称之为红巨星,之后扩张的物质会渐渐丢失在太空中,可是所有核反应曾经发生在其中的恒星内核还留在原地。

(11m49s)

This is another star, but in this case it’s a white dwarf star. The sound is very different. And the reason for that is the structure of this is completely different. It’s not really a star in the way that we normally understand them. It’s actually claps down after the main part of its life is over.

-- The white dwarf is basically a dead star. It’s about the size of the Earth. So when a star like the Sun reaches the end of its life and runs out of nuclear fuel in its core, its out layers expand, we call red giant, and then eventually lost into space, but its core is still left behind where all nuclear reactions used to take place.

(4)

这些脉冲星是宇宙中最奇怪的东西中的一种。这种渺小的星的密度是如此之高,只要方糖大小的一块,其重量就抵得上全人类。它们的形成颇戏剧化:当一颗恒星作为一颗超新星爆发之后,剩余物质塌陷,压垮了内部的原子并使这微小的核旋转得越来越快。

这些无线电脉冲是由旋转中的星的两极发射出的一束高密度无线电波。它们可以从遥远的地球上检测到。由于这无线电射束像宇宙灯塔的光一样扫过我们的行星,一个脉冲就标志着这颗星旋转一圈。不像地球每24小时旋转一圈,这颗脉冲星每秒钟转一圈,而这还是属于转速较慢的。

——我们发现的有些脉冲星转得非常非常快,每秒钟几百圈,我们称之为亳秒脉冲星,因为我们看到它们的脉冲是每几十或几百毫秒一次。接下来这颗星的转速是174圈每秒,听起来是这样……

(15m53s)

These pulsating radio stars, or pulsars for short, are amongst the strangest things in the universe. The tiny stars are so dense that a piece the size of a sugar cube would weigh as much of the whole humanity. They form dramatically when a star explodes as a supernova and the leftovers claps crashing the atoms inside and making the tiny core spin faster and faster.

These radio pulses are produced by a beam of intense radiation jetting out from the spinning star’s poles, and they can be detected all the way from the Earth. As the beam swings past our planet like a cosmic lighthouse a pulse marks out every time the star rotates. Unlike the Earth, which rotates every twenty-four hours, this pulsar spins around once every second, and this is one of the slower ones.

-- Some pulsars we find are spinning much much faster, hundreds of times a second, so fast we call them millisecond pulsars because we see the flash every sort of tens or hundreds of milliseconds. So this next one is spinning a hundred and seventy-four times a second if we just listen to that.

(5)

这种不间断的脉冲非常可靠,因此脉冲星可以被用作宇宙的时钟,使天文学家们能够测试他们关于宇宙的最新理论。

——最近让人们产生兴趣的东西之一是被称为脉冲星计时阵的东西。我们利用地球上的望远镜,对准天空中许多不同的脉冲星,我们要看来自这些脉冲星的脉冲时间是不是有稍微的变化,看我们能不能检测到微小的时间变化,如果有,而且不是一个星的某一个时刻而是其他星也发生,所有的脉冲星都改变了向我们“唱歌”的频率,那么我们认为这意味着一定是有一个引力波经过了地球——它是爱因斯坦构建的时空中的一个涟漪。

(18m01s)

This relentless ticking is so reliable that pulsars can be used as cosmic clocks allowing astronomers to test their latest theories about the universe.

-- One of the things people have got interested in most recently is something called pulsar timing arrays. And that’s where we take telescopes on Earth, we point them on lots of different pulsars across the sky and we look to see are there slight changes in the timing of these clicks coming from the pulsar, are there slight changes in those timings that we can detect, because if there are and they happen not just to one pulsar at any one moment but other pulsars as well. All the pulsars have changed the rate which they are singing to us. Then we think that means a gravitational wave must have passed by the Earth. It’s a ripple in Einstein’s fabric of space and time itself.

(6)

黑洞是物理学家们构想出的最怪异的理论物体。如今,黑洞实际上对于我们理解宇宙包括星系等等如何发展到今天的样子起着主要的角色。我们认为几乎肯定有一个黑洞位于我们所在的星系的中心。从靠近星系中心的恒星移动方式我们得到了非常有力的证据。我们相信,一般来讲,黑洞在星系形成和运动分布方面起着巨大的作用。

(21m29s) Black holes are the most strange theoretical objects that physicists have ever dreamt up. Nowadays the way that we understand how the universe has come to look like it does today with galaxies and so on, actually black holes get a starring role in that. We think that almost certainly a black hole is in the center of our own galaxy. We got very strong evidence for that from the way that stars are moving around near the center of galaxy. And we think that black holes, in general, have a huge role to play in shaping galaxies and making the galaxy population look like it does.

(7)

伽马射线爆发是宇宙中的??。我们并不完全清楚它们是什么,但它们是在宇宙最远处的某些种类的能量非常大的爆炸。

——这次爆炸产生有X射线,伽马射线,高能X射线。那种闪光,然后你听到,那确实是X射线的明亮闪光,我们猜想是一颗超大恒星的内核塌陷了,可能形成了一个黑洞。它发射粒子流和辐射到太空,这些射流直接,几乎直接朝着我们而来,从宇宙中极遥远的地方,在到达我们之前这光芒旅行了75亿年;你知道它在我们的宇宙中是多么遥远,这光是难以置信地强大。不可思议,有大约30秒钟的时间甚至用肉眼就能看到。

事实上它们第一次被观测到是被监测核试验的军用卫星发现的。

(22m40s) Gamma ray bursts are these ???s in the universe. We don’t fully understand what they are, but they are some sort of very energetic explosion going on in the furthest reach of the universe.

-- So these are x-rays, gamma rays, high energy x-rays that being produced by this explosion. That sort of flash that you heard then that’s really a bright flash, in the x-rays, we think what happens is a supermassive star collapses in its heart, probably forms a black hole. It shoots out jets of particles and radiation into space. That jets directly, almost directly toward us, extreme distance in our universe, that was seven and half billion years the light traveled for before it reached us. You know that’s so far out in the universe, that light was incredibly powerful. Bizarrely, it was actually even visible to the naked eye just for thirty seconds or so.

And in fact when they were first detected was by military satellites that were looking for signs of nuclear testing.

(8)

最后,作为对我们深空旅行的结束,我们要体验一种声音,它象征着天文学最基础的事件之一:宇宙的诞生。

它可能让你想起当你调谐一台老的模拟收音机时遇到的静电干扰声,可这是你能听到的最古老的噪声,而且很可能是意义最重大的。这是声音化的宇宙大爆炸的余辉,被称为宇宙微波背景辐射,它的发现引起了一场科学革命。

——《发现》/《空间的声音:深太空》,BBC 2015/07/07

(23m57s) Finally to end our voyage into deep space we are going to experience a sound that symbolizes one of the most fundamental events in astronomy: the birth of the universe.

It might remind you the static that you come across when you tune in in an old analog radio set, but this is the oldest noise you ever hear, and probably the most significant. It’s the sonified afterglow of the Big Bang, known as the cosmic microwave background, and its discovery caused a scientific revolution.

-- Discovery / Sounds of Space: Deep Space, BBC 2015/07/07

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