注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

英海听涛

启用你的听觉,更自然地感受更辽阔的世界。——用进废退!

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

网易考拉推荐

国际空间站的些许事  

2015-07-01 10:28:45|  分类: 科学与技术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
 

(1)

自从2000年11月以来国际空间站(ISS)中就一直有人居住。他们大部分是来自美国和俄国的宇航员,不过也有许多来自大约13个不同国家的太空乘客。

ISS上的居民在睡觉时要确保他们位于通风良好的地方,因为那里没有空气的自然流动。他们呼出的二氧化碳将会在他们的头部周围积聚起来。在地球上,我们从肺里呼出的空气通常比周围的空气热,由于这种温度的差别,根据阿基米德浮力定律,热的空气上升,冷的空气下降。可是这种情况却不会在微重力的太空中发生。在发现这种现象之前,他们有时会因为缺氧而憋醒。可话又说回来了,憋醒了也总比醒不过来好啊。

(00m51s) The ISS (International Space Station) has been continually inhabited by humans since November, two thousand. They are mostly astronauts from the USA, cosmonauts from Russia but there have been many other space farers from some thirteen different countries.

When they go to sleep the habitants of the ISS have to make sure that they are in a well-ventilated area because there is not good air flow. The carbon dioxide they breathe out will accumulate around their heads. On Earth the expired air from our lungs is usually warmer than the ambient air and when you combine this difference in temperature with Archimedes Principle, the warmer air rises and cooler air falls. But this does not happen in the microgravity of space. Before they discovered this, the space farers would sometimes wakeup gasping for oxygen. On the other hand it’s better to wakeup gasping than to not wakeup at all.

(2)

国际空间站很庞大。用肉眼就很容易看到它,而且从大部分国家的首都就能看到。它重约450吨。大约108米宽,这是大约两个游泳池的宽度;大约73米长;大约20米高。它基本上是每93分钟环绕地球一圈,速度约为27,700千米每小时。它在近地轨道时距地球相当近,距离地面只有大约330到435千米。

我家的太阳能电池只能发电4.5千瓦,而ISS的庞大太阳能电池可以发电约131千瓦,不过这只发生在绕地球每圈的一半多一点,ISS处于阳光照射时。当它进入地球阴影中时,大约是35分钟,电能来自于可以充电的镍氢电池,是这里的电力把水电解成氢和氧供人们呼吸。

(01m53s) Now the international space station is huge. You can easily see it with a naked eye and from most capital cities. It weighs around four hundred and fifty tons. It is about a hundred and eight meters wide that’s about two of the swimming pools; about seventy-three meters long; and about twenty meters high. It orbits the Earth roughly every ninety-three minutes, traveling in around twenty-seven thousand seven hundred kilometers per hour. It’s surprisingly close in its low earth orbit, only some three hundred and thirty to four hundred and thirty-five kilometers above the ground.

Now while my home solar cells generate only four and a half kilowatts, the ISS’s massive solar cells generate around one hundred and thirty-one kilowatts but only for slightly more than a half of each orbit while the ISS is in sunlight. When it’s in the Earth’s shadow, which is for some thirty-five minutes, electricity comes from its rechargeable nickel-hydrogen batteries, it’s this electricity that turns water into hydrogen and oxygen.

(3)

水回收系统收集洗浴用水和空气中的水蒸气,并把它们送入氧再生器。尿液也被处理以增加水的供应。这个系统本应该能够从收集到的尿液中回收85%的水分,可是国际空间站上的微重力环境使得去到太空的人们大量流失骨密度,这导致尿液中含有很高浓度的钙,从而使水回收率降到了70%。

——《卡尔博士的伟大科学一刻》/《太空中的宇航员如何呼吸?》,ABC 2015.6.9

(04m27s) The water recovery systems catch water from showers and sinks and water vapor in the air and then feed it into the oxygen-generators. Urine is also processed to provide more water. Now originally the systems were supposed to be able to recover eighty-five per cent of the water in the collected urine, but the microgravity conditions of the international space station caused massive loss of bone density in the space-goers, which led to very high calcium levels in the urine, this reduced the water recovery to seventy per cent.

-- Dr. Karl’s Great Moments in Science / How do astronauts breathe in space? 2015.6.9

  评论这张
 
阅读(106)| 评论(8)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017