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英海听涛

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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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难以呼吸  

2015-12-22 11:17:24|  分类: 环境与农业 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(1)

——多数人没有意识到这是个令人震撼的数字,大约330万人每年因为空气污染而过早死亡。这是个令人震惊的大数字。

——这是乔斯-莱利弗尔特,他是位于美因茨(德国西部港口城市)的马克思-普朗克化学研究所的所长。他们研究全球范围空气污染的影响。你别以为这330万就是影响的全部,它并不包括另外350万因为自己家中炉火的烟尘而导致的早亡。大约每年700万过早死亡是由于空气传播的污染物所致,比吸烟死亡的人还多。

这些数字来自于莱利弗尔特教授碰巧与大众公司丑闻曝光同时发表的研究。它详细列举了各个城市的死亡人数:德里2万;北京1.4万;中国高度工业化的珠江三角洲5万;莫斯科0.9万;BBC所在地的伦敦接近0.3万等等。它还列出了导致死亡的直接原因——肺病、中风、心脏病和肺癌。

(01m28s)

-- Most people are not aware it’s a shocking number that about three point three million people per year die prematurely because of air pollution. And this is a shockingly large number.

-- This is Jos Lelieveld, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz where they study the effects of air pollution on a global scale. And just in case you think that three point three million is the full story, it excludes a further three point five million, whose lives are shortened by smoke from the fires in stoves in their own homes. Around seven million premature deaths every year because of airborne contaminants, which is more than that killed by smoking tobacco.

The numbers come from a study Professor Lelieveld published coincidently that just the same time the Volkswagen scandal was unfolding. It details city by city where those deaths occur: twenty thousand in Deli; fourteen thousand in Beijing; fifty thousand in the heavily industrialized Pearl River Delta in China; nine thousand in Moscow; nearly three thousand in the home of the BBC, London and so on. It also lists the immediate causes of death – lung disease, strokes, heart attacks, and lung cancer.

(2)

一个让人震惊的统计数字是英国死于汽车尾气影响的人数是死于道路交通事故的人数的三倍。而其他许多发达国家的情况也类似。

(08m01s) It’s a shocking statistic that in the UK about three times as many people die each year because of the effects of vehicle exhausts as killed in road accidents. And the disparity is similar in much of the developed world.

(3)

污染物在大气层中飘移时会变化,这一实际情况使得弄清楚它们对健康的影响更加困难。

(16m46s) The fact that pollutants change as they move through the atmosphere makes understanding their health consequences even harder to unravel.

(4)

我们首先发现的是这每年330万的75% 发生在亚洲。这也许不太让人惊讶,因为我们都知道在亚洲,尤其是东部中国,还有印度,空气质量有时很差。当然许多人生活在那里也就曝露在这些空气污染中。不过这些数字这么高,也是确实让我们吃惊。后来我们又发现首位原因并不是如你可能预料的工业和交通等等,而是小的炉火,是居民用于取暖和做饭的能源消耗。在印度特别是做饭;在中国还有取暖。

所以在许多国家里是小的燃烧源在产生大量的真正导致空气质量非常低并且导致过早死亡的烟尘。当然这不是说交通是清洁的,而是说在许多城市里它其实不是导致空气污染的首要原因。

——《发现》/《难以呼吸:现代空气污染问题》,BBC 2015/12/01

(21m06s) And what first we find is that seventy-five percent of this three point three million per year is occurring in Asia. This may not be a big surprise because we all know that in Asia, especially eastern China, it also in India, the air quality can be very low. And of course many people live there who are exposed to these air pollution conditions, but that these numbers were so high, was really surprising also for us. And then we also found that the leading cause is not as you may have expected like industry and traffic etcetera, but it is small fire, it is residential energy use for heating and cooking. In India, it is particular cooking; and in China also for heating.

So it’s small combustion sources that are producing large amount of smoke that are really causing air quality to be very low and causing premature mortality in many countries. So, of course, that’s not saying the traffic is clean but it’s not the leading cause of air pollution in many cities actually.

-- Discovery / Unbreathable: The Modern Problem of Air Pollution, BBC 2015/12/01

 

附:世界卫生组织公布的一些空气污染的数据。

难以呼吸 - 九塘 - 英海听涛

 空气污染导致的死亡:WHO估计2012年有370万死亡可以认为是由于周围环境(室外)空气污染所致。这些死亡中的88%发生在中低收入国家,最严重的在WHO划分的西太平洋和东南亚区域。2012年,430万死亡是由于家庭(室内)空气污染。这些死亡的几乎全部都发生在中低收入国家。加在一起的话,全世界每死亡8个人,就有大约1个人是由于空气污染所致。

难以呼吸 - 九塘 - 英海听涛

环境空气污染

工业、家庭和汽车都排放复杂的空气污染物的混合体,其中有许多对健康是有害的。所有的这些污染物中,微细颗粒物对人类健康的影响最大,它既可以来自移动源比如机动车辆,又可以来自固定源比如发电厂、工厂、家庭或生物质(如秸秆树叶)的燃烧。

微细颗粒物与种类广泛的急性和慢性疾病有关,比如肺癌、慢性阻塞性肺病(简称慢阻肺或COPD)和心血管疾病。从全世界范围看,估计它造成了16%的肺癌死亡,11%的慢阻肺死亡,以及20%以上的缺血性心脏病和中风。微细颗粒物污染是一个影响全世界人民的环境健康问题,可是中低收入国家受到它的困扰却不按比例——格外高。

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