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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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液流电池  

2014-01-22 10:22:32|  分类: 科学与技术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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大功率长时间的电能存储是可再生能源发展面临的一个问题,液流电池在这方面很有希望。哈佛大学的一个团队在液流电池的研究方面迈出了可喜的一步,他们的文章发表在年初的《自然》杂志上,《自然播客》也采访了文章的首席作者——

(1)

对于风之类的能源来说,问题是有点??——有时候你能得到大量的能源,而其他时候就不足了。太阳能和其他间歇性的能源也不例外。于是,需要在峰值时把能源存储起来以弥补欠缺时段。一个解决问题的方法是给电池充电。不过传统的(蓄)电池大功率长时间放电的性能不好,于是,液流(蓄)电池就“闪亮登场”了。像传统电池一样,能量在液流电池里也存贮在化学品中,不过在长时间放电方面液流电池更灵活。我从询问与传统电池的不同开始,与哈佛大学的迈克尔-阿齐兹谈论了液流电池。

——《自然播客》,《自然》杂志 2014/01/09

 (00m45s)

The trouble with energy sources like wind is that a bit ___. So you can get plenty of energy at sometimes but not enough at other times. The same goes the solar power and other intermittent energy sources. So what if this energy could be stored at peak times to compensate for those times that a bit lacking. One solution is to charge batteries. But conventional batteries aren’t good at delivering that full power capacity for long periods of time. Step up the flow battery. Like conventional batteries the energy in flow battery is stored in chemicals but flow batteries are more flexible when it comes to long time delivery. I spoke to Michael Aziz from Harvard University about flow batteries and started by asking him how they differ from their conventional cousins.

-- Nature Podcast, Nature 2014/01/09

(2)

液流电池把能量存储于液态化学品中,不过这种液体不是存放在电池内部而是在电池外部专门的罐中,与分开的燃料电池相类似。这种燃料电池以氢气的形式把能量存贮在电池外部,当你需要把化学能转化成电能时,你让氢通过电池来产生电能。液流电池的区别是,你得能让它“正转”又能“反转”。你让它反转来为液流电池充电,电能转换成化学能存放在罐中的化学物质中;然后,你让它正转,让能量再输出来,把化学能再转换成电能,就如同燃料电池一样。

(01m35s)

A flow battery stores the energy in liquid chemicals that are contained in external tanks instead of inside the battery itself. It’s similar to a fuel cell in their respective. The fuel cell stores the energy in hydrogen gas outside the fuel cell and then when you need to convert that chemical energy in electric energy you run it through the fuel cell to make electricity. The difference with the flow battery is that you have to be able to run it frontward and backward. You run it backward to charge up the flow battery, electricity being converted into chemical energy and stored in chemicals in the tanks. And then run it frontward to get the energy back out, converting the chemicals back in electricity just like a fuel cell.

(3)

——为什么我们要使用这种液流电池而不是众所周知的、园林机械中常见的传统电池呢?

——啊,液流电池更适合便宜地存储非常大量的电能,你所能存储的能量数量只受液罐大小和用于存储的化学品数量的限制。

——到目前为止是什么限制了它们的应用呢?为什么现在我们不全都换成液流电池呢?

——迄今为止液流电池所依赖的化学品很昂贵,或者很难维护。商业化应用最成功的液流电池使用的是钒,一种非常昂贵的金属。我们所做的是制造了一个基于自然的有机化学的液流电池,它用的化学品是大量存在的不昂贵的称为醌的有机分子,没有金属。这些分子很便宜,它们存在于所有绿色蔬菜中,它们存在于原油中。

——《自然播客》,《自然》杂志 2014/01/09

(02m25s)

-- And why do we use these kinds of flow batteries instead of the traditional garden variety batteries that others may know about?

-- Well, flow batteries are better suited for storing very large amounts of electrical energy cheaply. With the amount of energy you can store is limited only by the size of the tanks and the amount of storage chemicals you can afford.

-- What’s been limiting the use of them so far? Why we not all adapting flow batteries at the moment?

-- Well, until now flow batteries relied on chemicals that are expensive or they are difficult to maintain. The flow battery that the most commercially advanced is one that uses vanadium, which is a very expensive metal. Well, we’ve done is we built the flow battery based on the chemistry of naturally abundant and inexpensive organic molecules called quinones. No metals. These molecules are cheap. They are in all green vegetables. They are in crude oil.

-- Nature Podcast, Nature 2014/01/09

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