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英海听涛

启用你的听觉,更自然地感受更辽阔的世界。——用进废退!

 
 
 

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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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朝鲜的结核病  

2013-05-02 16:54:12|  分类: 社会与人生 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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二十年前,朝鲜报导其结核病(TB = tuberculosis)发病率是每年每十万人不到50个病例;2011年的最新数字是每十万人374个病例,20年期间增长为7倍。这个数字大概是中国和韩国当前TB发病率的4倍。让朝鲜的情况特别突出的是,不象其他几乎所有TB高发病率国家一样,它没有大的HIV/艾滋病问题的困扰。朝鲜TB的根源是1994-98年的严重饥荒。

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许多村庄没有多少电力(动力、能源)。淡水供应不稳定。食物供应自从饥荒以来仍然存在严重问题,食物供应仍然不稳定。你如今在村庄里看到的是人们确实生活在深深的贫穷之中,他们在地里劳作,从早春的备播,一直到晚秋的收获。庄稼收获后全部交给政府,政府再向人民配给粮食。

……不过,显著的,治疗农村地区病人的结核病疗养院处于相对好的状态。许多建筑是近来建造或修缮了的。多亏了西方组织的帮助,他们现在正在得到食物捐助,这帮助提高大众的蛋白质水平,并且大部分的疗养院如今有了温室,所以他们能种食物,这让他们在当前所能种植的基础上有所增加。

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那是早春,当我访问那里的时候。儿科病房里真的是冰冷,那么寒冷,没有合适的取暖设施。孩子们衣服外面套着额外的白色和蓝色条纹的病号服。他们想家,因为TB治疗很紧张,需要很长时间,平均要超过4个月,TB的治疗实际上可以说是艰苦的,所以让年幼的机体耐受这些药物是很难的。

——《科学播客》,《科学》2013/4/26

(文本)

(22m47s)

Twenty years ago North Korea was reporting an annual incidence of fewer than 50 cases per 100,000 people. The latest numbers, from 2011, put it at 374 cases per 100,000, which is a 7-fold rise over two decades. And that’s about four times the current rates in China and South Korea. What makes North Korea stand out especially is that, unlike nearly all other countries with a high TB burden, it doesn’t have a big HIV/AIDS problem. The roots of the epidemic in North Korea are devastating famines from 1994 to 98.

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(26m21s)

A lot of these villages don’t have very much power. They don’t have a steady supply of fresh water. People really have serious problems with food shortages still. Since the period of the famines back in the 90s the food supply has not been very stable. What you see in the villages now is people living in pretty deep poverty. They work out in the fields from the early spring getting the fields ready for the spring sowing and then later for the fall harvest. After the food is harvested it’s given over to the government. The government rations food back to the people.

…but it’s notable that the tuberculosis rest homes where the patients in the rural areas are treated, the rest homes are in relatively good condition. A lot of the buildings had been recently built or fixed up. They are now, thanks to a lot of help from western organizations, they’re getting food donations, which helps boost protein levels in the population, and most of the rest homes now have greenhouses so they can grow food, which augments what they currently can grow.

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(29m52s)

So, this was early spring when I was visiting there; the pediatric ward inside is really freezing cold, so chilly. They don’t have proper heating, and these kids are wearing extra layers of these white and blue pinstripe gowns over their clothes. They are homesick, because the TB treatment is very intense it takes a long time. On average the kids are spending about four months at this ward. And the TB drugs are pretty harsh, actually. So, it’s hard for young bodies to tolerate these drugs.

--Science Podcast, Science 2013/4/26

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