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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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制造业的革命  

2013-05-21 11:49:21|  分类: 科学与技术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(1)

有少数动物,比如猿和几种别的动物确实会使用棍棒和石块作为工具,不过即便如此,我们人类只把我们自己列为工具制造动物。不久以前,我们人类发明了一种新工具,看来这种新工具将会在未来几十年里革命化我们的制造业。它能制造任何东西:会走的钟表、珠宝、疫苗、汽车,牙齿、人体器官、小提琴、手枪或者甚至造一个它自己。这种新工具被称为3D打印机。这个名称有歧义,它不是打印那种当你用特殊的3D眼镜看时就突然立体起来的3D画面,不是。它制造实实在在的三维物体,一次薄薄的一层,几百层或者几千层依次叠加起来,直到最终物体的完成。

——《卡尔博士的科学伟大时刻》/《3D打印革命》,ABC 2013/5/15

(原话听写)

(00m05s)

A few animals, such as apes and others do use sticks and stones as tools, but even so, we humans do classify ourselves as the tool-making animal. Well, a little while ago, we humans invented a new tool and it seems that this new tool will revolutionize our manufacturing industries over the next few decades. It can make anything: a working clock, jewelry, vaccines, a metal axle fuel car, a tooth, human body organs, a violin, a handgun, or even a copy of itself. This new tool is called, rather confusingly, a 3D printer. But it does not print 3D pictures the kind that spring to life when you look at them with special 3D glasses, no. it makes or fabricates actual 3D objects one thin layer at a time and then builds up hundreds or thousands of these layers on top of each other until the final object is completed.

-- Dr. Karl’s Great Moments in Science / The 3D Printing Revolution, ABC 2013/5/15

(2)

那么,为什么这种过程被称为3D打印?哦,有一种很流行的打印机就是喷墨打印机。它通过从微小的喷口挤出微小的墨滴而打印到纸上。这种墨滴是如此的微小——几千万亿滴才有1升。有的3D打印机也是通过从微小的喷口挤出微量的液体来制造物品的。而且就像常规打印机一样,3D打印机也由计算机控制,而计算机遵循的是来自某个文件的指令。有一个你可以下载这种文件的网站,它被Thingiverse, 字面意思是实在物体的数字设计。也有许多其他的。工程师们称这种过程为叠层制造。但是更流行的说法是3D打印,这种叫法可能会被沿用很长时间。

(01m11s)

So, why did the process get called 3D printing? Well, one popular type of printer is the ink-jet printer. It prints onto paper by squeezing out tiny balls of ink from tiny nozzles. And these tiny balls of ink are so little, that it would take thousands of trillions of them to make up a liter. Some 3D printers make their fabrications by squeezing out tiny volumes of liquid from tiny nozzles. And just like a regular printer the 3D printers are controlled by computer, which follows instructions from a file. One website where you can download file from, it’s called Thingiverse, Digital Designs for Physical Objects. And there are many others. The engineers call this process Additive Layer Manufacturing. But the more popular type is 3D printing and ___ probably stuck with us for ages.

(3)

最初的3D打印机应用于在1990年代晚期,用于制造复杂设计的塑料原型,这让工程师能看到并把握实际尺寸的最终形态产品的模型。

(02m08s)

The first 3D printers were used in the late nineteen eighties to make plastic prototypes of complex designs so that engineers could see and hold a full sized model of what the final device would look like.

(4)

从那时以来,3D打印或者说层叠制造领域取得了巨大的进展。首先,这种技术已经远远不仅限于制造塑料原型,而是进入到制造最终产品。例如,航空航天工业巨人波音公司,已经打印了大约22000个喷气式飞机的部件,既有民用的也有军用的。其次,这一领域已经分化,在它的一端,巨型专业级的打印机能充满一间大库房。在它的另一端,你能花几千美元买一个业余级的能放在桌面上的打印机。

(03m00s)

Since then the field of 3D printing or additive layer manufacturing has advanced enormously. First the technology has gone far beyond making plastic prototypes to making production ___ of actual objects. For example, the giant aerospace company, Boeing, has printed some twenty-two thousand parts of their jet planes, both military and civilian. Second, the field has split. At one end, of the huge professional grade printers that fill a warehouse. At the other end, you can buy for a few thousand dollars and amateur grade printer will sit on a desktop.

(5)

今天,3D打印机有许多不同的类型。进入到它们内部的原材料可以是塑料:固体的、液体的或颗粒的,金属,陶瓷粉末,金属或塑料薄膜,巧克力,是巧克力,简单化学品,混凝土,甚至纸张。硬化原材料使之成为有形物品的技术也多种多样:紫外线立体光刻,选择性激光烧结,电子束自由形态制造,直接金属激光烧结等等。

这种技术还很年轻:其制造过程可能要很长时间;表面光洁度也不太一致;要制造需要多种不同材质的物品仍然很困难。但是它的潜能是巨大的。

(03m39s)

Today there are many different types of these 3D printers. The raw materials that go into them can be plastics, either solid, liquid or granular, metals, ceramic powders, metal or plastic film, chocolate, is chocolate, simple chemicals, concrete, even paper. And there are many technologies to harden the raw material into the physical object. Ultraviolet stereo lithography, selective laser sintering, electron beam freeform fabrication, direct metal laser sintering, and so on.

The technology is still young. The process can take a long time. The surface finish can be variable. And it’s still difficult to build objects from many different kinds of materials. But the potential is enormous.

(6)

或许,3D打印机将会如同1450年代的印刷机,1750年代的蒸汽机,1950年代的晶体管,成为人类社会进步的一个里程碑?到2050年会不会每家有一个——还有待观察。

——《卡尔博士的科学伟大时刻》/《3D打印革命》,ABC 2013/5/15

(05m06s)

Maybe the 3D printer will be like printing press in fourteen fifty, the steam engine in seventeen fifty, or the transistor in nineteen fifty. Whether there’ll be one in every home by twenty fifty remains to be seen.

-- Dr. Karl’s Great Moments in Science / The 3D Printer Revolution, ABC 2013/5/15

 ============

[注]:传统的制造方法基本上都是“减法”——从一个较大的材料上锯啊,锉啊,磨啊……。而本文介绍的这一种制造方法就反过来用“加法”——一点一点累加起来。所以这一种方法就被称为Additive Manufacturing。相对应的,人们把以往的传统制造方法称为Subtractive Manufacturing。

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