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英海听涛

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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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外/祖母的角色  

2013-04-03 16:08:46|  分类: 社会与人生 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(1)

这里是旧金山KQED公共电台,我是戴维·艾弗森。当我们想到我们的外/祖母时,温柔的抚摸可能会涌上心头。但是,越来越多地,她们的角色包含了某些坚实的多的东西。据芝加哥大学的琳达·韦特和她的同事们的一项新近研究,美国外/祖父母的60%现在正在照看他/她们的孙辈们。在她的《外/祖母力量》一书中,帕奥拉·贾恩特科写道:非洲的未来可能很大程度上取决于它的外/祖母们。还有,在一篇名为《外/祖母为什么存在》的文章中,纽约公众作家朱迪斯·舒利瓦茨介绍了外/祖母的进化原因和她们在今天的角色。这三位学者和作家:琳达·韦特、帕奥拉·贾恩特科和朱迪斯·舒利瓦茨对于外/祖母的重要性已经作了很多思考,她们参加我们这个小时的论坛节目,就像我们一样。

你们大家早上好

——《KQED论坛播客》/《外/祖母的所为》,KQED 2013/3/16 (本文所有内容均来自这一节目)

[注]:因为英语里的grandmother既可指祖母又可指外祖母,所以在本文中用“外/祖母”表示祖母或/和外祖母;同理,用“外/祖父母”表示祖父母或/和外祖父母。

(原话听写)。

(00m59s)

From KQED Public Radio in San Francisco, I'm David Iverson. When we think about our grandmothers, a gentle touch might come to mind. But increasingly, their role encompasses something much more concrete. According to a recent study by Linda Waite and her colleagues in the University of Chicago, sixty percent of American grandparents now provide child care for their grandchildren. In her book Grandmother Power, Paola Gianturco writes that the future of Africa may well depends on its grandmothers. And in an article titled: Why Grandmothers Exist, New York public writer Judith Shulevitz flacks on the evolutionary reasons for grandmothers and their roles today. Those three scholars and writers: Linda Waite, Paola Gianturco and Judith Shulevitz have been doing a lot of thinking about the importance of grandmothers and they join us for this hour of Forum as we do the same.

Good morning to all of you.

--KQED Forum Podcast / What Grandmothers Do, KQED 2013/3/16

(2)

——你的某些研究显示现在5岁以下孩子的母亲多达30%依赖外/祖父母提供基本儿童照管?

——是的。

(00m59s)

--And some of your researches indicate that is much now thirty per cent of mothers with children under the age of five depend on grandparents for their primary child care?

--That's right.

(3)

我想外/祖母一直以来都是重要的。外/祖母们,随着更多年轻母亲进入工作大军,随着单身父母的增加,随着升高的离婚率,以及随着近期的萧条,更多的家庭需要她们的帮助。

(03m31s)

I think grandparents have been always important. Grandmothers, I think, with the move of more young mothers into the labor force, with the increases of single parenthood, with, ah, high divorce rate, and with the recent recession more families need their help.

(4)

非洲各地的外/祖母们在照看着因为艾滋病而成为孤儿的孙辈们。她们为这些孩子们而悲痛,或为他们的父母的逝去而悲痛。于是外/祖母们的介入便成为一种必然。她们有时要同时照看多达12到15个孙儿们。

(04m24s)

Grandmothers all over Africa are taking care of grandchildren who've been orphaned by AIDS. They are grieving the children or grieving the loss of their parents. And grandmothers have stepped in as necessity, sometimes taking care as many as twelve to fifteen grandchildren at the same time.

(5)

我写这篇文章的原因是我遇到过一本书,我读到这个问题:为什么绝经后的妇女会存在?因为一旦,如你所见,失去生殖的能力,进化选择,自然选择就会对你不利。所以,这一直是人们试图解决的谜团之一。首先,一位名叫乔治·威廉姆斯的伟大的生物学家认为妇女停止生殖在她们的一生中是相对较早的,没有几种动物能像女人一样在不能生育之后还能活那么长时间。其原因据认为是这样她们就能看到自己最年幼的孩子进入成年。大约25年之前,一些人类学家也介入了,他们研究了非洲的一个部落并注意到部落中的妇女们,外/祖母们做的工作最多。

(06m36s)

The reason I wrote the article is as I came across a book, I was reading the question why postmenopausal women exist? Because once, as you see, lose the ability to reproduce, evolution should select, nature should select against you. So, it's always been one of its mysteries that people have been trying to solve. First, a great biologist named George Williams thought was so that women would stop reproducing relatively early in their lives, ah, very few animals live on as long as women do after they stop being able to reproduce. And the reason for this is thought to be so they can see their youngest children into adulthood. And some twenty-five years ago, some anthropologists came along and they studied a tribe in Africa and noticed that the women, the grandmothers in the tribe did the most work.

(6)

举例来说,在阿根廷,外/祖母们,那里的“讲故事的外/祖母计划”是2000位外/祖母每周到学校里去读书讲故事——讲故事是全世界外/祖母们的一个传统。另一个例子是爱尔兰的外/祖母们正工作在,啊,为关注肥胖儿童的“慢速食物运动”创造了“国际外/祖母节”,营养常常是母亲和外/祖母的任务。在塞内加尔和许多其他文化中,外/祖母们是她们的家庭的公众健康信息的提供者,并且再通过扩展而传达到她们的社区。

(11m10s)

For example, in Argentina the grandmothers, the Storytelling Grandmothers Programme there are two thousand grandmothers are reading in schools every week. Ah, story telling is a tradition of grandmothers worldwide. Another example is in Ireland grandmothers are working on, ah, started International Grandmothers Day for the Slow Food Movement concerning obese children. Nutrition is often the role of mothers and grandmothers. In Senegal and in many other cultures grandmothers are the sources of public heath information through their families and by extension into their community.

(7)

哦,我采访过哥伦比亚大学公共健康学院院长,她给了我一个极好的提示。她说:“老人是我们社会中仅有的自然增长的资源。”我们生活在我称之为“老龄时代”,婴儿潮时期出生的人们几年以前开始退休。而且你知道,要不了几个十年的功夫,他们就将占到人口的1/5。所以这是一个巨大的人群。有一个名词:“贪婪的老家伙”,许多人担心老年人将耗尽我们的资源。但是哥伦比亚大学公共健康学院院长说:“不,实际上他们是有待发掘的资源。”

(12m51s)

Well, I interviewed the dean of the Public Health School of Columbia University. She gave me a wonderful clue. She said: “Old people are the only naturally increasing resource in our society.” We were living in what I call the Age of Old Age. The baby-boomers began retiring a few years ago. And you know, within a few decades they are going to be as much as a fifth of our population. So we have this enormous population in there. There is a phrase there, which is “Greedy Geezers” so a lot of people are worried that the old folks are going to drain our resources. But the dean of the public health of Columbia says:” No, actually they are resources to be tapped.”

(8)

琳达·弗里德带头——琳达·弗里德是哥伦比亚大学公共健康学院院长,我前面谈到过她,她首创了一个项目,如今已经在19个城市中进行,在这个项目中,她让外/祖父母们,不只是外/祖母们,进入公立学校,每周15个小时,每个人到一个特定的教室。他们在学生的教育结果中发现了统计显著地,值得注意的提高。外/祖父母们——老人在教室里的存在,看起来让班级镇定下来,还有,当然了,外/祖父母们也是额外的帮手,他/她们为教师提供帮助。还不止于此,老人们自己的健康和快乐也提高了,这可能是因为他/她们感到更有用了……

我们知道他/她们确实能让社会受益。

——《KQED论坛》/《外/祖母的所为》,KQED 2013/3/16

(21m54s)

Well, Linda Fried spearheaded, Linda Fried is the dean of public health at Columbia, whom I was speaking before and she spearheaded a project that’s now in nineteen cities, in which she puts grandparents, not just grandmothers, in public schools where they spend fifteen hours a week in a particular classroom, each of them. And they found statistically significant, indeed for remarkable improvements in educational outcomes for the students. The grandparents, the presence of an old person in the classroom seems to calm the classroom down, and, of course, the grandparent was an extra hand, they are providing support to the teacher, which anyone was taught knows a great thing. And not only that, but their own health and happiness improved perhaps because they were feeling more useful…

We know that they can really benefit society.

--KQED Forum Podcast / What Grandmothers Do, KQED 2013/3/16

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