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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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大蒜备忘录  

2013-02-28 16:00:35|  分类: 社会与人生 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(1)

“中国在2010年生产了世界大蒜的80%还多,估计有18,600,000吨。比别的哪个国家都多。印度有第二大产量。后面是韩国、埃及、俄国。美国是第八,排在缅甸和埃塞俄比亚之后。我们倾向于认为地中海不论在使用量上还可能是在产量上都是大蒜的中心,但实际上,西班牙是地中海最大的大蒜生产国,而它在世界上仅排在第11位。”

(讲话的是)特德-梅雷迪思[注]。过一会儿,我们将听到缅甸——前10名生产国之一的大蒜情况。不过首先,让我们来看看英国商业化大蒜种植是如何正在成长的。欧洲种植者们被一个非常高的进口税所保护:9.6%再加120欧元/每百千克。去年12月,一伦敦西部男子被判六年监禁,因为从中国走私大蒜,包装成姜,而姜是没有关税的。以前也曾有过其他类似的案件,结果也是坐牢的判决。

——《食物节目》/《大蒜,奇异的球茎》,BBC 2013/2/20

[注]:(Ted Meredith)他写了一本书《大蒜全书:园艺者、种植者和认真的烹饪者指南》(The Complete Book of Garlic: A Guide for gardeners, growers and serious cooks)。

(原话听写)

(17m54s)

“China produces more than eighty per cent of the world’s garlic and estimated eighteen point six million metric tons in twenty ten. Ah, more than any other countries actually. India has the second biggest production. After that is South Korea, Egypt, Russia. United States is eighth, but only after Burma and Ethiopia. We tend to think of the Mediterranean is being the center for garlic both in term of usage and perhaps production, but in fact, Spain is the Mediterranean’s biggest producer of garlic, and it’s only ranked eleventh in the world.”

Ted Meredith. In a few minutes we’ll hear more about garlic in Burma, one of those top ten producers. First, though, let’s look at how commercial garlic growing is on a rise in the UK. European growers are protected by a very high import tax, nine point six percent plus a hundred and twenty euros per one hundred kilos. In December, a West London man was sentenced to six years in jail for smuggling garlic from China packed as ginger, on which there is no duty. There’ve been other similar cases resulting in prison sentences.

--Food Programme / Garlic the wonderbulb, BBC 2013/2/20

(2)

2010年我们进口了近2万吨蒜头,是25年前的进口量的5倍。大蒜如今很常见。

 (00m58s) In two thousand and ten we imported nearly twenty thousand tons of bulbs, five times what we brought in twenty-five years ago. Garlic today is ordinary.

(3)

“如今,我们认识到大蒜是这类食物中的一种,它们与心脏病风险的降低相关,与癌症风险的降低相关,与某些免疫能力的激励相关,因而可能与许多其他疾病也相关。”

约翰-米尔纳是贝茨维尔人类营养研究中心的主任,这个研究中心是美国农业部的一个机构。

 (09m28s) Today we recognize the garlic is as one of those, that has been associated to the reduction in the risk of heart disease, reduction in risk of cancer, some stimulation of immuno- confidence, therefore maybe associated with many other diseases and conditions.

John Milner is the director of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, part of the United States Department of Agriculture.

(4)

大蒜中的力量和冲劲主要来自化学物质大蒜素。

“你会注意到,当它是一个蒜头或一个完整的蒜瓣时,你闻不到多少味道。只有当你用某种方式破坏蒜瓣时,当你拍打它、压碎它,或将它切片时,你才释放大蒜素。那么,蒜瓣中发生的是,在完整的蒜瓣里有两种东西:蒜氨酸和蒜氨酸酶。当它们在一起互相作用时就产生大蒜素。这一化学反应在蒜头或蒜瓣一旦被破坏时就发生,这两种东西聚到一起并产生大蒜素,主要就是这种化合物产生的力量和风味。因此,如果你想做一道有更强烈大蒜风味的菜,你就需要建立更多的化学反应,所以,压碎、拍扁,制造更多大蒜素。”

——《食物节目》/《大蒜,奇异的球茎》,BBC 2013/2/20

 (11m05s)

The power and punch in garlic comes mainly from the chemical allicin.

“You would notice when it’s, that as a bulb, or as an intact clove, doesn’t really smell that much. It’s only when you start to damage the clove in some way, when you bash it, or crash it, or slice it that you would release this allicin. So what happens in the clove is that intact inside the clove are two things: alliin and alliinase. When they interact together they produce allicin. So this chemical reaction happens as soon as the bulb or the clove is damaged and these two things pull together and create allicin, which is the compound which is responsible for most of the strength of the flavor. So, if you want to create a dish that has more garlic flavor then you need to create more chemical reactions. So, crashing, bashing, that creates allicin.”

--Food Programme / Garlic the wonderbulb, BBC 2013/2/20

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