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英海听涛

启用你的听觉,更自然地感受更辽阔的世界。——用进废退!

 
 
 

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喜欢科学,偏爱自然科学。也喜欢技术,儿时喜围观打锡壶的和锔盆锔锅的。当过工人,当过兵,第二故乡是湖南、广西和广东。

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基因相同的不同(下)  

2013-02-18 15:27:02|  分类: 生命与健康 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(6)

癌症确实是在表观遗传学中走在前面,最领先的研究也在那里。人们正在意识到,虽然癌症被称为一种遗传疾病,其遗传性并不很高。……如乳腺癌,只是腰背疼的遗传性的三分之一。

——《阔克斯和夸克斯》/《相同地不同》,CBC(加拿大广播公司) 2013/2/1

 (原话听写)

(10m25s)

Cancer really led the way in epigenetics and the most advanced studies are there. And what people realizing is that it is though called a genetic disease it’s not very heritable. So, overall cancer is, as a said thing as breast cancer, ah, three times less genetic than back pain.

--Quirks and Quarks / Identically Different, CBC 2013/2/1

(7)

吸烟之类的行为能关闭你的防御基因。这些基因被称为肿瘤抑制基因。这可以导致癌症的发生。癌症本身通过关闭人体所有其他保护机制而表观遗传地起作用,像是解除机体的武装,然后就可以让癌症蔓延。这接下来导致的就是癌转移和死亡。这是所有这些癌症的一个非常普通的现象。而且令人着迷的是你能通过作这些测试看到表观遗传学的改变,而通过看这些改变就能跟踪这些癌症的进展。现在人们研发了许多药物,它们实际上能逆转癌症的表观遗传功能。在西方国家的市场上有四种药物,多数是抗击白血病的,但它们实际上是逆转癌症的表观遗传改变,让机体重新打开其自然防御机制以反抗肿瘤。所以,这已经成为一种战斗,在我们和癌症之间的表观遗传的战斗,以及看谁能如何操纵我们的表观基因组来让我们生存。

“现在,请让我看看我理解的是否正确。你是说我们的行为比如吸烟能引起这些化学基附着到我们的DNA上,之后可能影响癌症的发展,而制药公司在研发能反转、逆转这个过程的药物。”

“很正确,是的。而且还有证据显示,我们祖辈的吸烟影响可能仍然在影响着我们。这也是为什么尽管现在吸烟的人减少了,而与吸烟无关的肺癌却还有稍微的增加。因此,仍有可能,我们的前辈遗留的某些信号在继续关闭着某些我们的癌症防御基因。”

“啊,这又给了二手烟一个新的定义。”

“绝对的。……”

[注]:表观遗传学(epigenetics),1940年出现,用来解释基因与环境(先天与后天)的交互作用。表观基因组(epigenome),不涉及到DNA排序的可遗传的基因表达(状态)。

(11m04s)

Things like smoking can switch off your protective genes. And these protective genes are called tumor suppress genes. And this can then lead to the initiation of the cancer, which itself works epigenetically by switching off all the other body’s protective mechanisms, so like disarming it, allowing the cancer to then spread. That then leads to metastasis and death. And this is a very general phenomenon to all these cancers. And what’s (very?) fascinating is you can follow the progress of these cancers by looking at the changes in the epigenetics, by doing these tests. And now they have developed many drugs, which actually can reverse the cancers’ epigenetic functions. So there are four drugs now on the market in Western countries, many fight against leukemias, but they actually reverse the epigenetic changes of the cancer, allowing the body to switch back on its natural defense mechanisms against the tumor. So it’s becoming a sort of battle, epigenetic battle between us and cancer, and how who can manipulate our epigenome to allow us to survive.

“Now, just let me see if I had it right. You’re saying that our behaviors such as smoking can cause these chemical groups to attach to our DNA then might influence the development of cancer, and then the drug companies are developing drugs that turning that, reverse that around again.”

“That’s exactly right, yes. And there is also evidence that the smoking effects of our grand parents might still influence us. And so that’s why although less people are smoking now, there’s been a slight increase in non-smoking related lung cancers. So it’s still possible that some of the signals of our previous generations have left in print is still switching off some of our cancer protective genes.”

“Well, that gives a new definition to second-hand smoke.”

“Absolutely, yes, we can’t stop blending our grand parents for everything.”

(8)

我们现在通过知道糖尿病如何起作用,是什么引起的这整个过程,以及表观遗传学中发生的革命让我们能实际探索基因上的这些化学开关到同样的程度。……它将让我们理解疾病如何导致它们打开或关闭的机理,并且我们能有希望逆转这些过程。并且时间将告诉我们表观遗传学在预测疾病或性格方面是否比只是基本的基因本身好一些。我估计会好些的,因为不像基因你一生只测试一次,而表观基因的测试,我们将来某个时候可能都会进行一年一度的测试。

“斯佩克特博士,谢谢您的时间。”

“很乐意。”

“斯佩克特博士是伦敦(大学)国王学院的遗传流行病学教授。他的新书名为《相同地不同》。”

——《阔克斯和夸克斯》/《相同地不同》,CBC 2013/2/1

 (14m48s)

We know by being to understand how diabetes works, what starts the whole process, and the revolution that happened in epigenetics allowing us to actually explore these chemical switches on the genes to the same extent. It’s gonna(=going to) do exactly the same. It’s gonna allow us to understand the mechanisms how diseases are caused them switched on or off, and hopefully how we can reverse these processes. And time will tell whether epigenetics might be better in predicting disease or personalities than just the basic genes themselves. I suspect it will because unlike genes, which you (have to?) test once in your life, testing of your epigenes you may, we may all be having annual tests in some time in the future.

“Doctor Spector, thank you for your time.”

“Pleasure.”

“Dr. Tim Spector is a professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London. His new book is called “Identically Different.”

--Quirks and Quarks / Identically Different, CBC 2013/2/1

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